Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a type of stroke caused by bleeding within the brain tissue. The most common type of ICH happens when a blood vessel inside the brain bursts and blood leaks into the surrounding brain tissue. It is considered the deadliest class of stroke because blood that accumulates within the brain after the rupture is toxic and more patients die from ICH than from any other form of stroke.
The most common cause of ICH is high blood pressure (hypertension). Other causes include trauma, tumors and abnormalities in blood vessels. Symptoms of ICH can include trouble with speaking and understanding, paralysis or numbness in the face, arms or legs, trouble with seeing in one or both eyes, severe headache, vomiting, dizziness, loss of balance or loss of coordination.
During an ICH, blood collects in the brain tissue. As blood spills into the brain, the area of the brain attached is injured and this results in brain swelling that puts pressure on the rest of the brain. If the blood is not removed, the toxins released by the blood clot produce even more brain swelling that can result in further brain injury, coma, and even death.
Brain tissue is rapidly lost as a stroke progresses and emergency care and teatment are required. Once the cause and location of the bleeding is identified, treatment focuses on stopping the bleeding, removing the blood clot, and relieving the pressure on the brain.
Studies show that early removal of the blood could potentially stop or significantly slow down brain injury.